Международная конференция по дуньхуановедению открывается сегодня в Институте восточных рукописей РАН (ИВР РАН
). Кроме докладов по основной тематике
коференции, на параллельной сессии будут представлены доклады и по тангутским исследованиям.
Международная конференцияДуньхуановедение: перспективы и проблемы второго столетия исследований3—5 сентября 2009 г., Санкт-Петербург, Россия
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCEDunhuang Studies: Prospects and Problems for the Coming Second Century of ResearchSeptember 3–5, 2009
конференции можно ознакомиться на сайте ИВР РАН здесь
. Ниже приведены тезисы
некоторых докладов (в основном по тангутским исследованиям).ABSTRACTSDENG Wenkuan
(Researcher, Chinese Academy of Cultural Heritage, China
“The Importance of Dunhuang and Khara-Khoto Calendars from Russian Collection for the Research of Printing Technique”Abstract:
In October, 1999, we first knew about the fragment of embossing printed calendar from the edition of Dunhuang documents collected in Russia (Дx. 2880). In the course of its’ study, we discovered, that it was a calendar of the eighth year of reign Jiayin of the lunar calendar of Tang Dynasty (A.D. 834). This item is of great importance for dating of printing, as it introduced the precise chronology of embossing printed entity, puting it 34 earlier as supposed before. As we came to the 21th century, scholars have found some fragments of the printed calendar from the Kambun Calendar, unearthed in Khara-Khoto, made in a technique of primitive embossing, the item has the precise date as well.
提要: 在1999年10月，我们从俄藏敦煌文献中发现了一块雕印历日的小残片（Дх. 2880），经考证，其内容为《唐大和八年甲寅岁（834年）具注历日》，从而将雕版
(Head of the Center of Tangut Studies, Ningxia University, China
“An overview of the Chinese Manuscripts from Khara-Khoto collected in China”Abstract:
The number of Heishuicheng Chinese manuscripts collected in China is more than 4000. Most of them were excavated by the Research Institute of Cultural Relicts and Archaeology of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in 1983 and 1984, others were continuously collected from early 1950s. Comparing the Chinese collection with that of Russia and England, we can point its’ 3 main characteristics. First, it has a big number of the more or less complete documents (about 700), while the big Russian collection contains about the same number, and the British collection has fewer. Second, the content of the majority of the documents in Chinese concerns the social life, there are economy, official, legislation documents, letters, records, contracts, etc. The Chinese manuscripts in the foreign collections from Khara-Khoto are mainly religious by their content. Third, there are new discoveries and new replenishments. The time of the documents in the Chinese collection ranges from Tang and Five Dynasties till Yuan (including North Yuan), with the majority belonging to Yuan. The future systematic research and publication of these documents will give us new approaches to study of the history of China in time of Song, Xia, Jin, Yuan dynasties, mediaeval Buddhism history, textual criticism, etc.
(Professor, Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, RAS, Russia
“Dunhuang under the Tangut Rule”Abstract:
This paper will analyze the chapters of the Tangut Code dealing with the administration of the border regions in Xi-Xia State. We will prove that the economic, trade and religious life in Dunhaung under the Tangut rule still remained very active, and the Buddhist monasteries were involved into it. Religious ceremonies were held in Buddhist temples by Chinese, Uighur and Tanguts. Some data of the Dunhuang mural art, dated by the time of Tangut rule, will be also used to confirm our point of view.
(Associate Professor, Faculty of Humanities, Hirosaki University, Japan
“Uighur Almanac Divination Fragments from Dunhuang”Abstract:
The Old Uighur texts of almanac divination from Central Asia were found mainly in the Dunhuang grottes and the Turfan region. The divination texts from Turfan were published by Prof. R. R. Arat (G. R. Rachmati) in 1936 (Türkische Turfan-Texte VII, Abhandlungen der Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
1936-12). Besides, some new materials have been introduced for the academic community by the International Dunhuang Project of the British Library (http://idp.bl.uk
) and by the meritorious volumes of the excavation report of the Northern Grottoes of Dunhuang Mogaoku (Peng Jinzhang ed., Northern Grottoes of Mogaoku, Dunhuang
, 3vols., Beijing, 2000-2004). In this paper I will analyze the Dunhuang Uighur fragments of almanac divination from the collections of the East Asian Library of Princeton University and of the Dunhuang Academy. Their content should correspond to that of Yu-xia-ji, the almanac divination texts popular among the Chinese. Judging from the script and other features, we may state, that the Uighur texts belong to the Mongol-Yuan period (the 13th
cc.). It may be also noted that Mongolian almanac texts from Khara-Khoto have the similar content. Still more, the Uighur almanac texts of the Princeton collection were written on reverse side of the Xi-Xia (Tangut) Buddhist sutra. In such a context the Uighur fragments can be a clue to reconstruct the historical situation of the cultural interactions between Uighurs, Mongols, Tanguts and Chinese in the Dunhuang and surrounding regions.
(Curator, The Palace Museum, China
“A Restudy of Original images of the Five Stellar Deities”Abstract:
The worship of Tejaprabha, a late-appearing Buddha in the pantheon, apparently embodies the governing constellation in the heavens. The paintings of Tejaprabha Buddha Assembly constitute an important iconographic material of Esoteric Buddhism (Tantrism) in the Northern China from the 9th to the 15th centuries. Very few paintings of this subject have survived, but a group of paintings Tejaprabha Buddha and the Various Luminary Officials
is held in the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg. The prominent members of the Tejaprabha Assembly are planetary, stellar, solar and lunar, represent the twenty-eight constellations and the twelve signs of the zodiac Deities. The images of Tejaprabha Assembly were not only the important part of the rituals of Esoteric Buddhism in time of Tang dynasty, but also relative to the images of the middle ages astronomy and astrology from Central Asia.
(Professor, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, China
“Tangut Version of the Traditional Chinese Medical Work Mingtang Jiujing
The Khara-Khoto collection of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts, Russian Academy of Sciences, includes a volume of manuscript under No. 2630 in a running script. We have already known from its title page, that it was a Tangut version of the traditional Chinese medical work Mingtang Jiujing
明堂灸经, but we have not identified its Chinese original and its substance. It is pointed out in the present paper that the manuscript proves to be a translation draft from the 100th volume of the Chinese medical work Taiping Shenghui Fang
太平圣惠方 compiled by the order of Northern Song authorities at the end of the 10th century. The original xylograph of Taiping Shenghui Fang
has been lost long ago, and its relevant manuscripts preserved nowadays are also incomplete, but some of the missing statements may be fortunately discovered in its Tangut version.
(Curator, The State Hermitage Museum, Russia
“The comparison of the style and subjects of the Xi-Xia and Yuan Dynasty caves of Dunhuang and Yulinku, of Tangut pagodas and of materials from the Khara-Khoto collection of the Hermitage”Abstract:
Academic attention is increasingly being drawn to the subjects of Tangut culture. There are three large complexes of the Tangut artifacts now: the murals of the Dunhuang and Yu-linku caves, the materials from Hunfo and Baissikou pagodas in the Yinchuan Museum and the art collection from Khara-Khoto in the State Hermitage Museum. The comparison of the subjects, pantheon, iconography of the paintings and sculptures shows, that the Chinese and Tibetan traditions were equally represented in all the three complexes. But while analyzing the style and dating of the Chinese style scrolls, Tibetan tangkas and items of synthesis of two traditions, it is possible to suggest the existing of the various art schools and different interpretation of the dating of the painting and sculpture. We intend to establish precisely the upper and lower dates of the three complexes of art materials.
(Professor, St. Petersburg State University, Department of Philosophy / Visiting Professor, Department of Buddhist Studies, Foguang University, Taiwan
“Chan Buddhism in the Tangut State”Abstract:
The report aims at presenting a summarized view of the Chan Buddhism in Xi-Xia as it can be reconstructed from the Tangut sources from P. K. Kozlov' collection. The basis of the research is the following texts: "The Essence of the Teaching of the Hongzhou Masters" (both short and long version), "The Twenty five questions and answers concerning the Buddhist Principles by the Tang State preceptor Zhong" (long and short versions), "The Mirror", "The Notes on Various Occasions by the Chan master Bhiksu" and "The Supreme Meaning of the One-Vehicle" by the Great Master Tongli. The general idea of the presentation will be to demonstrate the domination of the Huayan thought in the Tangut Chan Buddhism, trace it’s connection with the Buddhism of Liao (the Great Master Tongli) and Dunhuang (The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch). Special emphasis will be put on the determining the nature of connections between the Tangut Buddhism and the Buddhism of the Late Tang, specifically in the case of Huizhong.
(Professor, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, China
“A Textual Research on the Chapter Advising Relatives to Cultivate the Benevolence in the Tangut Work A Collection of Virtuousness and Resourcefulness
”Abstract: A Collection of Virtuousness and Resourcefulness (Xianzhiji)
, a poetry anthology, written by the famous Tangut monk Xianbei Baoyuan in order to advise people in cultivating the benevolence and Buddhist values, proves to be one of the rare specimen of Tangut native literature, in the Khara-Khoto collections, housed in Russia. The paper first thoroughly investigates the Collection
, gives the details about its author and then presents a translation of its initial chapter Advising Relatives to Cultivate the Benevolence
in order to observe the style of the “Eloquence” (bian) of the Tangut folk literature derived from that of Dunhuang.Key words:
); Tangut literature; Dunhuang literature; folk literature
TAI Chung Pui
(Researcher, The University of Hong Kong
“On the Tangut fragments of Aparimitāyur-jñāna-nāma-mahāyāna-sūtra
This paper identifies 2 Tangut fragments found in the north region of Dunhuang Mogao caves and 1 Tangut fragment preserved in the Library of Peking University as the parts of the Aparimitāyur-jñāna-nāma-mahāyāna-sūtra
. The paper attempts to reconstruct a complete Tangut version of the sutra by utilizing Tangut fragments of the same sutra discovered elsewhere. It further points out that the numeral sequence of dhāranī in the Tangut version is different from all known Chinese and Tibetan versions, suggesting that the Tangut version is translated from an unknown Tibetan or Sanskrit version of Aparimitāyur-nāma sutra
(Post-Graduate Student, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, China
提要：20 世纪相继出土于中国的西夏文《维摩诘经》现在分藏于俄、中、英等国。这些藏本 实际上分属两个不同的译本，即11 世纪的初译本和12 世纪的校译本。本文首次公布了目前所见西夏 文《维摩诘经》的文本情况，通过不同译本的对勘展示了校译的细节。关键词：西夏；维摩